Man-made plastics are now ubiquitous in the natural environment; with their presence used to stratigraphically mark the likely beginning of a new geological epoch called the Anthropocene. Estimates suggest that there are >5 trillion pieces of plastic (270,000 tonnes) in the world’s oceans, the majority of which have travelled through terrestrial environments to get there (80 %). Current scientific research into the impact of plastics is heavily skewed towards the marine environment, despite plastic being found in almost all ecosystems (Figure 1). This projects seeks to address this imbalance by investigating the impact of plastics in the terrestrial environment.
The terrestrial environment has a distinct lack of data regarding the accumulation and impact of plastics despite decades of unintentional plastic pollution, the use of plastic products directly within soils (e.g. mulch films) and the spreading of waste derived fertilisers containing plastic contaminants. Research activity in this area has largely focused on soil health and crop yield. There is however a knowledge gap regarding the vitality of animals at the base of the food web and the role they play in creating and spreading microplastics (small plastic particles measuring <5mm). Newer biodegradable alternatives, so-called bioplastics, have been proposed as one solution to plastic pollution, but is this proposal justified from an ecotoxicity viewpoint?
This environmental science project can be tailored to the strengths of the applicant with a focus on either chemistry, biology or an overarching multidisciplinary approach. Applicants may be interested in exploring any number of the following themes:
- The absorption of chemicals to plastic materials and transference to terrestrial organisms;
- Using environmental soil biosensors to investigate ecotoxicological differences between fossil fuel derived plastics and newer biodegradable alternatives, i.e. bioplastics;
- Understand the timescales and microbiology involved with plastic degradation in a variety of terrestrial environments (e.g. river sediments and terrestrial soils).
- Study as a model system in soil the interactions of several different types of microplastics with the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans.
This project will use advanced analytical chemistry and biological techniques tailored towards the research question(s). The Open University has well-resourced laboratories that can: simulate natural environments under laboratory conditions; chemically analyse pollutants within fauna, flora and materials; measure the biodegradability of plastic materials; analyse ecotoxicological effects in biologically-relevant model organisms; screen environmental and chemical samples in vitro.
It is envisaged that the student would use microscopy, gas chromatography mass spectrometry, fourier-transform infra-red spectroscopy, solid phase extraction, HPLC and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for chemical identification. Bespoke respiration rigs with infra-red gas analysers would be used to investigate biodegradation. Genetic and behavioural studies would use soil biosensors.
Training and Skills
CENTA students are required to complete 45 days training throughout their PhD including a 10 day placement. In the first year, students will be trained as a single cohort on environmental science, research methods and core skills. Throughout the PhD, training will progress from core skills sets to master classes specific to CENTA research themes.
Specific to this project the student will gain training and experience in biodegradation of microplastics (CB), microscopy (RM) and chromatographic methods, including SPE and HPLC/UPLC (SC). Training in general C. elegans handling, toxicology and behavioural analysis in C. elegans (RM). The student will have the chance to visit external laboratories to apply the developed methodology.
Year 1: Establish the focus of the PhD, training on analytical techniques with the expectation that original data is generated by 9 months for inclusion in the progress report.
Year 2: Laboratory intensive year dedicated to generating and analysing original data. Opportunity to attend national academic and industrial conferences and visit other University institutions. Undertake the industry placement.
Year 3: Year is dedicated to writing up the thesis with the expectation of handing in within 3 years. Opportunity to attend an international conference.
Partners and collaboration (including CASE)
This studentship would be a CASE funded studentship with a UK polymer manufacturer (Biome Bioplastics Limited) who would offer a placement and contribute resources.
Students should have an enthusiasm for interdisciplinary science and environmental research. The student will join a well-established environmental and analytical team researching plastic waste materials at the Open University.
Please contact Dr Carl Boardman (Carl.Boardman@open.ac.uk) for further information.
Applications should include:
- a cover letter outlining why the project is of interest and how their skills match those required,
- an academic CV containing contact details of three academic references
- a CENTA application form, downloadable from: http://www.centa.org.uk/media/1202/centa-studentship-application-form.docx
- and an Open University application form, downloadable from: http://www.open.ac.uk/students/research/sites/www.open.ac.uk.students.research/files/documents/Application%20form.docx
Applications should be sent to
by 5 pm on Monday 22nd January 2018